# Randomly Break Ties in Data

`untie.Rd`

This is a generic function intended to randomly break tied data in a
way similar to what `jitter`

does: tie-breaking is
performed by shifting *all* data points by a random amount.
The surveillance package defines methods for matrices,
`"epidataCS"`

, and a default method for numeric vectors.

## Usage

```
untie(x, amount, ...)
# S3 method for class 'epidataCS'
untie(x, amount = list(t=NULL, s=NULL),
minsep = list(t=0, s=0), direction = "left", keep.sources = FALSE,
..., verbose = FALSE)
# S3 method for class 'matrix'
untie(x, amount = NULL, minsep = 0,
constraint = NULL, giveup = 1000, ...)
# Default S3 method
untie(x, amount = NULL, minsep = 0,
direction = c("symmetric", "left", "right"), sort = NULL,
giveup = 1000, ...)
```

## Arguments

- x
the data to be untied.

- amount
upper bound for the random amount by which data are shifted.

`NULL`

means to use a data-driven default, which equals the minimum separation of the data points for the non-symmetric default method and its half for the symmetric default method and the`matrix`

method.- minsep
minimum separation of jittered points. Can only be obeyed if much smaller than

`amount`

(also depending on the number of points).`minsep>0`

is currently only implemented for the spatial (matrix) method.- keep.sources
logical (

`FALSE`

). If`TRUE`

, the original list of possible event sources in`x$events$.sources`

will be preserved. For instance, events observed at the same time did by definition not trigger each other; however, after random tie-breaking one event will precede the other and considered as a potential source of infection for the latter, although it could just as well be the other way round. Enabling`keep.sources`

will use the`.sources`

list from the original (tied)`"epidataCS"`

object. Note, however, that an update is forced within`twinstim`

if a subset of the data is selected for model fitting or if a different`qmatrix`

is supplied.- constraint
an object of class

`"SpatialPolygons"`

representing the domain which the points of the matrix should belong to – before and after jittering.- giveup
number of attempts after which the algorithm should stop trying to generate new points.

- direction
one of

`"symmetric"`

(default),`"left"`

, or`"right"`

, indicating in which direction vector elements should be shifted.- sort
logical indicating if the jittered vector should be sorted. Defaults to doing so if the original vector was already sorted.

- ...
For the

`"epidataCS"`

-method: arguments passed to the`matrix`

- or`default`

-method (`giveup`

). Unused in other methods.- verbose
logical passed to

`as.epidataCS`

.

## Details

For numeric vectors (default method), the jittered version is the
same as for `jitter(x, amount=amount)`

, if
`direction="symmetric"`

(and `amount`

is non-`NULL`

),
and otherwise uses
`x`

“+-” `runif(length(x), 0, amount)`

.

For matrices, a vector uniformly drawn from the disc with radius
`amount`

is added to each point (row).

For `"epidataCS"`

, `amount`

is a list stating the amounts
for the temporal and/or spatial dimension, respectively. It then
uses the specific methods with arguments `constraint=x$W`

,
`direction`

, and `sort=TRUE`

. Note that this implements a
simplistic approach of tie-breaking where all events are assumed to be
subject to the same amounts of censoring, and the default amounts may
not be sensible choices.

## Examples

```
# vector example
set.seed(123)
untie(c(rep(1,3), rep(1.2, 4), rep(3,3)), direction="left", sort=FALSE)
# spatial example
data(imdepi)
coords <- coordinates(imdepi$events)
table(duplicated(coords))
plot(coords, cex=sqrt(multiplicity(coords)))
set.seed(1)
coords_untied <- untie(coords)
stopifnot(!anyDuplicated(coords_untied))
points(coords_untied, col=2) # shifted by very small amount in this case
```