`scores.Rd`

Proper scoring rules for Poisson or negative binomial predictions
of count data are described in Czado et al. (2009).
The following scores are implemented:
logarithmic score (`logs`

),
ranked probability score (`rps`

),
Dawid-Sebastiani score (`dss`

),
squared error score (`ses`

).

```
scores(x, ...)
# S3 method for default
scores(x, mu, size = NULL,
which = c("logs", "rps", "dss", "ses"),
sign = FALSE, ...)
logs(x, mu, size = NULL)
rps(x, mu, size = NULL, k = 40, tolerance = sqrt(.Machine$double.eps))
dss(x, mu, size = NULL)
ses(x, mu, size = NULL)
```

- x
the observed counts. All functions are vectorized and also accept matrices or arrays. Dimensions are preserved.

- mu
the means of the predictive distributions for the observations

`x`

.- size
either

`NULL`

(default), indicating Poisson predictions with mean`mu`

, or dispersion parameters of negative binomial forecasts for the observations`x`

, parametrized as in`dnbinom`

with variance`mu*(1+mu/size)`

.- which
a character vector specifying which scoring rules to apply. By default, all four proper scores are calculated. The normalized squared error score (

`"nses"`

) is also available but it is improper and hence not computed by default.- sign
a logical indicating if the function should also return

`sign(x-mu)`

, i.e., the sign of the difference between the observed counts and corresponding predictions.- ...
unused (argument of the generic).

- k
scalar argument controlling the finite sum approximation for the

`rps`

with truncation at`ceiling(mu + k*sd)`

.- tolerance
absolute tolerance for the finite sum approximation employed in the

`rps`

calculation. A warning is produced if the approximation with`k`

summands is insufficient for the specified`tolerance`

. In this case, increase`k`

for higher precision (or use a larger tolerance).

The scoring functions return the individual scores for the predictions
of the observations in `x`

(maintaining their dimension attributes).

The default `scores`

-method applies the selected (`which`

)
scoring functions (and calculates `sign(x-mu)`

) and returns the
results in an array (via `simplify2array`

), where the last
dimension corresponds to the different scores.

Czado, C., Gneiting, T. and Held, L. (2009):
Predictive model assessment for count data.
*Biometrics*, **65** (4), 1254-1261.
doi: 10.1111/j.1541-0420.2009.01191.x

The R package scoringRules implements the logarithmic score and the (continuous) ranked probability score for many distributions.

Sebastian Meyer and Michaela Paul

```
mu <- c(0.1, 1, 3, 6, pi, 100)
size <- 0.1
set.seed(1)
y <- rnbinom(length(mu), mu = mu, size = size)
scores(y, mu = mu, size = size)
scores(y, mu = mu, size = 1) # ses ignores the variance
scores(y, mu = 1, size = size)
## apply a specific scoring rule
scores(y, mu = mu, size = size, which = "rps")
rps(y, mu = mu, size = size)
```