`pit.Rd`

See Czado et al. (2009).

```
pit(x, ...)
# S3 method for default
pit(x, pdistr, J = 10, relative = TRUE, ..., plot = list())
```

- x
numeric vector representing the observed counts.

- pdistr
either a list of predictive cumulative distribution functions for the observations

`x`

, or (the name of) a single predictive CDF used for all`x`

(with potentially varying arguments`...`

). It is checked that the predictive CDF returns 0 at`x=-1`

. The name of its first argument can be different from`x`

, e.g.,`pdistr="pnbinom"`

is possible.

If`pdistr`

is a single function and no additional`...`

arguments are supplied,`pdistr`

is assumed to be vectorized, i.e., it is simply called as`pdistr(x)`

and`pdistr(x-1)`

. Otherwise, the predictive CDF is called sequentially and does not need to be vectorized.- J
the number of bins of the histogram.

- relative
logical indicating if relative frequency or the density should be plotted. Due to a historical bug,

`relative=TRUE`

(the default) actually plots a density histogram while`relative=FALSE`

plots relative frequencies.- ...
ignored if

`pdistr`

is a list. Otherwise, such additional arguments are used in sequential calls of`pdistr`

via`mapply(pdistr, x, ...)`

.- plot
a list of arguments for

`plot.histogram`

. Otherwise, no plot will be produced.

an object of class `"pit"`

, which inherits from class
`"histogram"`

(see `hist`

).
It is returned invisibly if a plot is produced.

Czado, C., Gneiting, T. and Held, L. (2009):
Predictive model assessment for count data.
*Biometrics*, **65** (4), 1254-1261.
doi: 10.1111/j.1541-0420.2009.01191.x

Michaela Paul and Sebastian Meyer

```
## Simulation example of Czado et al. (2009, Section 2.4)
set.seed(100)
x <- rnbinom(200, mu = 5, size = 2)
pdistrs <- list("NB(5,0)" = function (x) ppois(x, lambda=5),
"NB(5,1/2)" = function (x) pnbinom(x, mu=5, size=2),
"NB(5,1)" = function (x) pnbinom(x, mu=5, size=1))
## Reproduce Figure 1
op <- par(mfrow = c(1,3))
for (i in seq_along(pdistrs)) {
pit(x, pdistr = pdistrs[[i]], J = 10,
plot = list(ylim = c(0,2.75), main = names(pdistrs)[i]))
box()
}
par(op)
## Alternative call using ... arguments for pdistr (less efficient)
stopifnot(identical(pit(x, "pnbinom", mu = 5, size = 2, plot = FALSE),
pit(x, pdistrs[[2]], plot = FALSE)))
```