# Power-Law and Nonparametric Neighbourhood Weights for `hhh4`

-Models

`hhh4_W.Rd`

Set up power-law or nonparametric weights for the neighbourhood
component of `hhh4`

-models as proposed by Meyer and Held (2014).
Without normalization, power-law weights are
\(w_{ji} = o_{ji}^{-d}\)
(if \(o_{ji} > 0\), otherwise \(w_{ji} = 0\)),
where \(o_{ji}\) (\(=o_{ij}\)) is the adjacency order
between regions \(i\) and \(j\),
and the decay parameter \(d\) is to be estimated.
In the nonparametric formulation, unconstrained log-weights will be
estimated for each of the adjacency orders `2:maxlag`

(the
first-order weight is fixed to 1 for identifiability).
Both weight functions can be modified to include a 0-distance weight,
which enables `hhh4`

models without a separate autoregressive component.

## Usage

```
W_powerlaw(maxlag, normalize = TRUE, log = FALSE,
initial = if (log) 0 else 1, from0 = FALSE)
W_np(maxlag, truncate = TRUE, normalize = TRUE,
initial = log(zetaweights(2:(maxlag+from0))),
from0 = FALSE, to0 = truncate)
```

## Arguments

- maxlag
a single integer specifying a limiting order of adjacency. If spatial dependence is not to be truncated at some high order,

`maxlag`

should be set to the maximum adjacency order in the network of regions. The smallest possible value for`maxlag`

is 2 if`from0=FALSE`

and 1 otherwise.- truncate,to0
`W_np`

represents order-specific log-weights up to order`maxlag`

. Higher orders are by default (`truncate=TRUE`

) assumed to have zero weight (similar to`W_powerlaw`

). Alternatively,`truncate=FALSE`

requests that the weight at order`maxlag`

should be carried forward to higher orders.`truncate`

has previously been called`to0`

(deprecated).- normalize
logical indicating if the weights should be normalized such that the rows of the weight matrix sum to 1 (default). Note that normalization does not work with islands, i.e., regions without neighbours.

- log
logical indicating if the decay parameter \(d\) should be estimated on the log-scale to ensure positivity.

- initial
initial value of the parameter vector.

- from0
logical indicating if these parametric weights should include the 0-distance (autoregressive) case. In the default setting (

`from0 = FALSE`

), adjacency order 0 has zero weight, which is suitable for`hhh4`

models with a separate autoregressive component. With`from0 = TRUE`

(Meyer and Held, 2017), the power law is based on \((o_{ji} + 1)\), and nonparametric weights are estimated for adjacency orders`1:maxlag`

, respectively, where the 0-distance weight is \(w_{jj} = 1\) (without normalization). Note that the corresponding`hhh4`

model should then exclude a separate autoregressive component (`control$ar$f = ~ -1`

).

## Value

a list which can be passed as a specification of parametric
neighbourhood weights in the `control$ne$weights`

argument of

`hhh4`

.

## Details

`hhh4`

will take adjacency orders from the `neighbourhood`

slot of the `"sts"`

object, so these must be prepared before
fitting a model with parametric neighbourhood weights. The function
`nbOrder`

can be used to derive adjacency orders from a
binary adjacency matrix.

## References

Meyer, S. and Held, L. (2014):
Power-law models for infectious disease spread.
*The Annals of Applied Statistics*, **8** (3), 1612-1639.
doi:10.1214/14-AOAS743

Meyer, S. and Held, L. (2017):
Incorporating social contact data in spatio-temporal models for
infectious disease spread.
*Biostatistics*, **18** (2), 338-351.
doi:10.1093/biostatistics/kxw051

## See also

`nbOrder`

to determine adjacency orders from a binary
adjacency matrix.

`getNEweights`

and `coefW`

to extract the
estimated neighbourhood weight matrix and coefficients from an
`hhh4`

model.

## Examples

```
data("measlesWeserEms")
## data contains adjaceny orders as required for parametric weights
plot(measlesWeserEms, type = observed ~ unit, labels = TRUE)
neighbourhood(measlesWeserEms)[1:6,1:6]
max(neighbourhood(measlesWeserEms)) # max order is 5
## fit a power-law decay of spatial interaction
## in a hhh4 model with seasonality and random intercepts in the endemic part
measlesModel <- list(
ar = list(f = ~ 1),
ne = list(f = ~ 1, weights = W_powerlaw(maxlag=5)),
end = list(f = addSeason2formula(~-1 + ri(), S=1, period=52)),
family = "NegBin1")
## fit the model
set.seed(1) # random intercepts are initialized randomly
measlesFit <- hhh4(measlesWeserEms, measlesModel)
summary(measlesFit) # "neweights.d" is the decay parameter d
coefW(measlesFit)
## plot the spatio-temporal weights o_ji^-d / sum_k o_jk^-d
## as a function of adjacency order
plot(measlesFit, type = "neweights", xlab = "adjacency order")
## normalization => same distance does not necessarily mean same weight.
## to extract the whole weight matrix W: getNEweights(measlesFit)
## visualize contributions of the three model components
## to the overall number of infections (aggregated over all districts)
plot(measlesFit, total = TRUE)
## little contribution from neighbouring districts
if (surveillance.options("allExamples")) {
## simpler model with autoregressive effects captured by the ne component
measlesModel2 <- list(
ne = list(f = ~ 1, weights = W_powerlaw(maxlag=5, from0=TRUE)),
end = list(f = addSeason2formula(~-1 + ri(), S=1, period=52)),
family = "NegBin1")
measlesFit2 <- hhh4(measlesWeserEms, measlesModel2)
## omitting the separate AR component simplifies model extensions/selection
## and interpretation of covariate effects (only two predictors left)
plot(measlesFit2, type = "neweights", exclude = NULL, xlab = "adjacency order")
## strong decay, again mostly within-district transmission
## (one could also try a purely autoregressive model)
plot(measlesFit2, total = TRUE,
legend.args = list(legend = c("epidemic", "endemic")))
## almost the same RMSE as with separate AR and NE effects
c(rmse1 = sqrt(mean(residuals(measlesFit, "response")^2)),
rmse2 = sqrt(mean(residuals(measlesFit2, "response")^2)))
}
```